100 Conversations · Gallery

Tiếp biến | Transformation


I.
What is ‘acculturation?’

Source: VDict

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  • A process by which a person acquires the culture of the society that he/she inhabits
  • A process by which the culture of an isolated society changes on contact with a different one.
  • A process by which a person acquires the culture of the society that he/she inhabits, starting at birth.
  • Phenomena which result when groups of individuals of different cultures come into continuous contact, with subsequent changes in the original cultural patterns of either or both groups.
  • all the knowledge and values shared by a society
  • the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture; “the socialization of children to the norms of their culture”
  • the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure

Yusuf Evli

II.
Immigrant Issues

Source: Abstract of research work by J.E. Lansford, in Encyclopedia of Adolescence, 2011

Acculturation and Identity

***


Acculturation refers to the psychological and cultural adjustment that occurs within individuals, families, and cultural groups who come into contact with others from different cultural backgrounds.


Mathew Schwartz

Acculturation can be considered from the perspective of the extent to which relationships are sought between members of different cultural groups. If members of both cultural groups desire a relationship (e.g., the immigrant seeks daily interactions with the majority group, and the majority group is open to these interactions), integration is achieved. If members of neither cultural group want a relationship (e.g., the immigrant prefers to live only within the structures provided by the immigrant group, and the majority group does not encourage participation from the immigrant), the immigrant group is marginalized. If members of the immigrant group desire a relationship with the majority cultural group but the majority cultural group does not reciprocate, the immigrant group may assimilate into the majority group but lose their unique culture (e.g., a ‘melting pot’ phenomenon). If the majority culture is open to establishing a relationship with the immigrant group but the immigrant group does not reciprocate (e.g., the majority group does not discriminate against immigrants, but the immigrant chooses not to have daily interactions with the majority group), the immigrant group remains separate from the majority cultural group by their own desire.


Mitchell Luo

As immigrant adolescents are acculturating with respect to the country of destination, the larger society is making adjustments as a result of incoming immigrants. Acculturative experiences can vary, both to the degree to which immigrants enter into relationships with people and situations in the country of destination, and how much cultures adjust to new immigrants. From the perspective of the country of destination, a multicultural society results when immigrants are embraced into existing cultural structures but also encouraged to retain their cultural heritage from the country of origin. In contrast, a melting pot society results when immigrants are taken into existing cultural structures but discouraged from maintaining their own cultural heritage. On the other hand, a segregated society results when immigrants are excluded from existing cultural structures but are allowed to maintain their own cultural heritage. An exclusionary society results when immigrants are excluded from existing cultural structures and are also prevented from embracing their own cultural heritage within it; the most extreme example of an exclusionary society is one in which immigrants are deported to their country of origin.


Therefore, acculturation can be conceptualized as a bidirectional interaction between the immigrant and majority cultural groups that can result in different levels of integration, marginalization, assimilation, or separation of the immigrant group. Some domains that are open to change during the process of acculturation are rather superficial, such as dressing, speaking, or eating in a particular way. However, other domains that are open to change are more deep-seated in values, beliefs, and worldviews.


From the standpoint of an immigrant adolescent, the process of acculturation can have major implications for identity formation, one of the key developmental tasks of adolescence. Ethnic identity has been defined as a sense of belonging to one’s ethnic group. Adolescents whose acculturation results in integration have been found to have positive ethnic identities (derived from their country of origin) as well as national identities (derived from their country of destination). Adolescents whose acculturation can be characterized as separate have a positive ethnic identity but a negative or neutral national identity, typically are friends only with peers from their own cultural group, and speak the language from their country of origin rather than destination. Adolescents whose acculturation results in assimilation have a negative ethnic identity but a positive national identity, are friends with peers from the country of destination rather than from their own ethnic group, and speak the language from the country of destination rather than their heritage language. Adolescents whose acculturation results in marginalization have negative ethnic and national identity and appear to be diffuse and struggling with their sense of direction and purpose in their lives.


Vishwasa Navada K

Stress during the process of acculturation can result in psychological problems such as anxiety, depression, and feelings of uncertainty as well as behavioral problems such as aggression and delinquency. The most adaptive, as well as the most common, outcome of acculturation is integration, in which the adolescent participates in the majority culture without giving up his or her own cultural background. The least adaptive outcome of acculturation is marginalization, in which the adolescent struggles to identify with either the majority culture or the heritage culture. Marginalized adolescents often struggle with both internalizing and externalizing problems, whereas integrated adolescents have better mental health and fewer behavior problems.

Developmentally, more mature ethnic identity is generally achieved over time from early to late adolescence for immigrant youth, beginning with an unexamined sense of identity and passing through an exploratory phase before achieving a commitment to a particular identity. As key socializing agents, parents can play an important role in the development of adolescents’ ethnic identity. For example, by discussing their cultural history, teaching about cultural traditions, speaking the language from the country of origin, and instilling ethnic pride, parents can increase adolescents’ sense of ethnic identity. Some of these processes, such as early exploration followed by commitment to a particular identity, are not unique to immigrant adolescents but rather are shared by most adolescents. Other processes, such as identifying with a group that is not the cultural majority, are shared by immigrant adolescents and nonimmigrant ethnic minorities. Other processes, such as a redefinition of identity that might occur as a result of moving from one country to another, are likely unique to immigrant adolescents.


III.

Tiếp biến văn hóa

Source: Wikipedia


Tiếp biến văn hóa giải thích quá trình thay đổi văn hóa và thay đổi tâm lý là kết quả theo sau cuộc gặp gỡ giữa các nền văn hóa. Những ảnh hưởng của giao lưu văn hóa có thể thấy được ở nhiều cấp độ trong cả hai nền văn hóa tương tác. Ở cấp độ nhóm, tiếp biến văn hóa thường dẫn đến những thay đổi về văn hóa, phong tục, và các tổ chức xã hội… Hiệu ứng cấp độ nhóm đáng chú ý của tiếp biến văn hóa thường bao gồm những thay đổi trong thực phẩm, quần áo, và ngôn ngữ. Ở cấp độ cá nhân, sự khác biệt trong cách cá nhân tiếp biến văn hóa đã được chứng minh có liên quan không chỉ với những thay đổi trong hành vi, đối xử hàng ngày, mà còn với nhiều phạm vi phúc lợi về tâm lý và thể chất. Trong khi thuật ngữ tiếp cận văn hóa (enculturation) được sử dụng để mô tả quá trình học tập văn hóa mới đầu tiên, tiếp biến văn hóa có thể được coi như là sự học tập (hấp thụ) nền văn hoá đó đợt thứ


Discussion is gong on in S P A C E, which is our community online for deeper dialogues. This is just some background material for those who are going to be joining me on the next call for the conversation, ‘You Don’t Know What You Don’t Know.’ Details: https://www.eventbrite.com/e/opening-reception-you-dont-know-what-you-dont-know-tickets-164598130439

Free for members. Membership information is here.

100 Conversations · Papers

S P A C E | ‘Ready for anything’

Today we share a story that will be published in a July issue of S P A C E. ‘Ready for Anything’ was written by Anonymous in response to a prompt that was part of our May series of ‘Papers’. ‘Papers’ took place over email and in asynchronous, international conversation threads. Anonymous, author of the below, wrote the following in reply to a prompt called ‘Arrivals.’ With permission, we publish it here for you..


‘This prompt is actually not abstract at all,’ writes Anonymous. ‘This “arrival” thing, for a long time, became my most problematic concept that forced me to form a very solid protocol to deal with it…


‘And I think this can be one of the most important life skills that’s worth sharing and talking about!,’ Anonymous continues. ‘Thank you for inviting me to such an important talk!  I have been quite stressed these days so hopefully it doesn’t sound too depressing.’


Ready for anything
by Anonymous


I.
Calibration:
‘How am I feeling?’



So, the very first thing I do when something’s coming, is to check myself out.
To see if I’m in the state of “Subhuman”:that is, one in which you experience low arousal level, low motivation, and a disconnected mindset. Sub-human is inevitable, and it’s not always a bad thing. It’s just a sign that’s telling me that my body and mind are “not ready”. When I discover that, yes in fact I am in this state, I know what to do. I should be relaxing, nursing my health, and even enjoy the moment as it usually is the post-satisfaction effect.



If I have to do something, I’ll choose what I’ve already known how to do, with almost zero creative thinking. And most importantly, AVOID the arrival of those sorts of things that can expose me to unexpected forces. I know to sidestep them because it’s very clear to me that when I’m in this state, I definitely won’t have any energy at all, not even to feel the best news.


If any surprise arrives at this time, which is the exact wrong time for that to happen, then I will have to take a pretty direct and concrete measure in order to correct course. That is, I will have to execute a specific non-sleep-deep-rest (NSDR)session and/or using other stimulants in order to get out of the Subhuman Zone as fast as possible, before moving forward with any action, real thinking or important planning.
Else, the Sub-human will consider every news as bad news, and do destructive things in an attempt to try to remove everything and anything that it thinks causes “bad news”. Here is how I prep. Right before the arrival happens, I use all of my willpower to drag my expectations to the lowest level that is possible. That will prevent dopamine crashing, which would instantly bring me back to the Subhuman state again.

II.
Evaluation:
‘What’s best for me, right now?’


The next step is to seek counsel, within. 
As my Personalities wake up, I can deal with arrivals many different ways, depending on what it is,  and its relation to my current context. If the news goes against my flow, but requires me to do something, or change something; that means we have a pretty big problem. 

So I will summon all of my Personalities to form a council and execute a “Problem Solving” protocol, including many continuous sessions of writing, thinking, sacrificing… so as to tackle this challenge, and with the aim of generating an optimized solution. If the news blends well with my context–like this prompt comes just as I’m studying a neuroscience learning curve– then I can allow myself to act positively, let it tweak my behavior a little bit, and even allow it to let me change a few sessions on my schedule, as it shouldn’t affect the bigger vector.



III.
Towards blankness


If the news is not on my way, but interesting, and doesn’t force me to do anything, then there’s another tack. Depending on how good it is, and how far it is, related to my context, I will put it aside as “influence” or “potential project”. This usually comes up as I scroll through random online media, or consume my favorite offline media, and my mind just renders out ideas from that.
As I eliminate distraction for the sake of tight focus on my immediate, current project, Ideas from the media later will always compete for concern, as I search for it. I manage my youtube feed tightly, and my facebook loosely; to make sure they will support my growth instead of blunting it. I hope that explains why I’m saying ‘no’ much more than ‘yes’ when being invited to someone else’s project.

I plan out every hour in a day to be disciplined in my education, and to make a relatively long to-do list come true. I would have to quit my job, my growth, and my personal ideas to be involved in teamwork projects, no matter how much I like it. For now, it’s risky, for everything I have.



For those interested in finding out more about what sorts of personal ideas that list might include, Anonymous recommends several courses if you are inclined to teach yourself how to do things, and learn online, because everything is ‘just there.’ For those interested in teaching themselves things online, for free, Anonymous suggests this site called ‘online courses club’. Interesting! More soon, about DK’s new project, an online gallery. Watch this… S P A C E.

'S' is for Sincerity · 100 Conversations · Ideas of Curiosity · Miscellany · Relational Aesthetics

Wikipedia in Vietnamese on ‘Maturity’

Trong tâm lý học, trưởng thành là khả năng thích ứng được với môi trường xã hội, nhận thức được:)) Thời gian và địa điểm chính xác để có những cư xử đúng mực và biết được khi nào nên làm gì, tùy theo hoàn cảnh và phụ thuộc vào nền văn hóa xã hội mà ta đang sống.  Tuổi thành niên. Tuổi trưởng thành. Người lớn.

The translation on that page is this…
Mature
In psychology, maturity is the ability to adapt to a social environment, awareness :)) The exact time and place to behave properly and know when to do, depending on circumstances and depending on the social culture in which we live. Age of adulthood. Manhood. Adults.
And. That’s all.
In giant contrast, below is the English entry. But before I get to that, um.

Can someone reading this page, who follows this blog, and has native Vietnamese, can you, um. Please go and add more to this page on Wikipedia in Vietnamese? I think the emojis detract from the serious nature of the reportage, too. No?:)) I mean I love this:)))) emoji stuff but, on Wikipedia, about ‘maturity?’ Come on. Hãy nói về điều đó.

It’s one hell of a big topic and I think… important. Personally. What do you think though? Gosh I really want to know.
Perhaps we Western-educated lot overthink this thing but you know, look at this. The same idea, in the English entry, on Wikipedia, is miles and miles long. Seriously look. I’ll just paste it here.
Below is the English entry.

Maturity (psychological)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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In psychology, maturity is the ability to respond to the environment being aware of the correct time and location to behave and knowing when to act, according to the circumstances and the culture of the society one lives in.[1][2] Adult development and maturity theories include the purpose in life concept, in which maturity emphasizes a clear comprehension of life’s purpose, directedness, and intentionality, which contributes to the feeling that life is meaningful.[3]

The status of maturity is distinguished by the shift away from reliance on guardianship and the oversight of an adult in decision-making acts. Maturity has different definitions across legal, social, religious, political, sexual, emotional, and intellectual contexts.[4] The age or qualities assigned for each of these contexts are tied to culturally-significant indicators of independence that often vary as a result of social sentiments. The concept of psychological maturity has implications across both legal and social contexts, while a combination of political activism and scientific evidence continue to reshape and qualify its definition. Because of these factors, the notion and definition of maturity and immaturity is somewhat subjective.

American psychologist Jerome Bruner proposed the purpose of the period of immaturity as being a time for experimental play without serious consequences, where a young animal can spend a great deal of time observing the actions of skilled others in coordination with oversight by and activity with its mother.[5] The key to human innovation through the use of symbols and tools, therefore, is re-interpretive imitation that is “practiced, perfected, and varied in play” through extensive exploration of the limits on one’s ability to interact with the world. Evolutionary psychologists have also hypothesized that cognitive immaturity may serve an adaptive purpose as a protective barrier for children against their own under-developed meta-cognition and judgment, a vulnerability that may put them in harm’s way.[6] For youth today, the steadily extending period of ‘play’ and schooling going into the 21st century comes as a result of the increasing complexity of our world and its technologies, which too demand an increasing intricacy of skill as well as a more exhaustive set of pre-requisite abilities. Many of the behavioral and emotional problems associated with adolescence may arise as children cope with the increased demands placed on them, demands which have become increasingly abstracted from the work and expectations of adulthood.

Socio-emotional and cognitive markers[edit]

Although psychological maturity is specifically grounded in the autonomy of one’s decision-making ability, these outcomes are deeply embedded in not only cognition, but also in lifelong processes of emotional, social and moral development.[7] Various theorists have provided frameworks for recognizing the indicators of maturity. Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development describe progression into adult maturity, with each maturational stage characterized by a certain kind of psychsocial conflict.[8][9] The “Identity” stage is characterized as being mainly concerned with issues of role exploration and role confusion, and also the exploration of sexual and other identities. Adolescents navigate a web of conflicting values and selves in order to emerge as ‘the person one has come to be’ and ‘the person society expects one to become’.[10]Erikson did not insist that stages begin and end at globally pre-defined points, but that particular stages such as “Identity” could extend into adulthood for as long as it took to resolve the conflict.[11][12] Piaget’s theory of cognitive development defines the formal operational stage as a plateau reached once an individual can think logically using symbols and is marked by a shift away from “concrete” thought, or thought bound to immediacy and facts, and toward “abstract” thought, or thought employing reflection and deduction.[13] These theories have shaped the investigation of adolescent development and reflect the limitations of cognition prior to adulthood.

While maturity is often termed as a label awarded to a child, research has revealed that children themselves hold a clear sense of their own autonomy and personal jurisdiction. For instance, American elementary-aged school children demonstrated an acknowledgement of the limits of their parents’ authority over their choice of dress, hairstyle, friends, hobbies, and media choices.[14] But this constrained earlier concept of personal autonomy later develops into a broader understanding of individual freedoms, with an understanding of freedom of speech as a universal right emerging by elementary school age.[15] However, younger children do have difficulty with maintaining a consistent view on universal rights, with 75% of first-grade children expressing uncertainty about prohibiting freedom of speech in Canada.[16] But this same study also found that 6- to 11-year-old Canadian children rejected nondemocratic systems on the basis of violating principles of majority vote, equal representation, and right to a voice, which provides evidence for an emerging knowledge of political decision-making skills from a young age.

Biological and evolutionary markers[edit]

Where maturity is an earned status that often carries responsibilities, immaturity is then defined in contrast by the absence of serious responsibility and in its place is the freedom for unmitigated growth. This period of growth is particularly important for humans, who undergo a unique four-stage pattern of development (infancy, childhood, juvenility, adolescence) that has been theorized to confer a number of evolutionarily competitive benefits (Locke & Bogin, 2006). In infancy, motor development stretches long into the early years of life, necessitating that young infants rely on their mothers almost entirely. This state of helplessness provides for an intensely close bond between infant and mother, where separation is infrequent and babies are rarely out of a caregiver’s arms.[17][18] For non-human primates and all non-human mammalian species the growth of the first permanent molar marks the end of lactation and the beginning of foraging, setting an early requirement for independence. Human children, on the other hand, do not have an advanced motor control capable of foraging and also lack the digestive capacity for unprepared food, and so have always relied on the active involvement of their mother and other caregivers in their care into childhood.[19]

The pre-frontal cortex, which is responsible for higher cognitive functions such as planning, decision-making, judgment and reasoning, develops and matures most rapidly during early adolescence and into the early 20s.[20] Accompanying the growth of the pre-frontal cortex is continued synaptic pruning (the trimming of rarely used synapses) as well as increased myelination of nerve fibers in the brain, which serves to insulate and speed up signal transmission between neurons. The incomplete development of this process contributes to the finding that adolescents use their brain less broadly than do adults when asked to inhibit a response and show less cross-talk (communication across diverse regions of the brain).[21] The brain’s “cross-talk” may be related to decision-making concerning risk-taking, with one study of American adolescents finding delayed reaction time and decreased spread across brain regions in a task asking them to determine whether a dangerous action is a good idea or not.[22] Steinberg observes that there is close overlap in the activated brain regions for socioemotional and reward information, which may pose a challenge when making decisions in the most high-risk peer contexts.[23] One study found that preference for small immediate rewards over larger long-term rewards was associated with increased activation with regions primarily responsible for socioemotional decision-making.[24]

Problems with alleged negative correlation between plasticity and critical thinking[edit]

One problem with the notion of mental maturity as in adults being both more critical and less plastic than children is that it assumes a negative correlation between plasticity and independent critical thinking. This assumption is criticized as the ability to clearly distinguish ideas from each other and critically assess them would increase the capacity for self-correction and not decrease it, making the correlation between plasticity and independent critical thinking positive and not negative.[25]

Legal and political issues[edit]

The definition and determination of maturity has been applied to the issue of criminal responsibility of juvenile offenders and to a number of legal ages. The age of majority, the most broadly applied legal threshold of adulthood, is typically characterized by recognition of control over oneself and one’s actions and decisions. The most common age threshold is 18 years of age, with thresholds ranging from 14 to 21 across nations and between provinces. Although age of majority is referred to as a jurisdiction’s legal age, the legal ages of various other issues of legal maturity like sexual consent or drinking and smoking ages are often different from the age of majority. Aside from age-based thresholds of maturity, restrictions based in a perceived intellectual immaturity also extend to those with a variety of mental impairments (generally defined as anyone with a mental disability that requires guardianship), with laws in place in most regions limiting the voting rights of the mentally disabled and often requiring the judgment of a court to declare fitness. Similar to those restrictions placed on children, persons with mental disabilities also have freedoms restricted and have their rights assigned to parental guardians.

One reason cited for why children and the mentally disabled are not permitted to vote in elections is that they are too intellectually immature to understand voting issues. This view is echoed in concerns about the adult voting population, with observers citing concern for a decrease in ‘civic virtue’ and ‘social capital,’ reflecting a generalized panic over the political intelligence of the voting population.[26] Although critics have cited ‘youth culture’ as contributing to the malaise of modern mass media’s shallow treatment of political issues, interviews with youth themselves about their political views have revealed a widespread sense of frustration in their political powerlessness as well as a strongly cynical view of the actions of politicians.[27] Several researchers have attempted to explain this sense of cynicism as a way of rationalizing the sense of alienation and legal exclusion of youth in political decision-making.[28][29]

Another reason cited against child voting rights is that children would be unduly biased by media and other societal pressures. On the whole, this view is unsubstantiated, with interviews with youth revealing that they often have a great deal of knowledge about news programming, media bias, the importance of evidence, evaluation of arguments on the merits of their evidence, as well as a preparedness for forming arguments of one’s own using available evidence. In cognitive research, some studies conducted in the 1970s offered a skeptical view of adolescent understanding of democratic principles like freedom of speech.[30] However, this research is now recognized to have used challenging and contradictory vignettes that placed a high demand on still-developing verbal and metacognitive skills[16] which are not recognized as requisite to an understanding of individual political rights. More recent research[16][31] has unveiled that even elementary school age children have a concept of freedom of speech and that by ages 8–9 this concept expands beyond a concern for personal autonomy and onto awareness for its social implications and the importance of the right to a political voice.

Maturity has also been taken into account when determining the fairness of the death penalty in cases involving mentally retarded or underage perpetrators. In Atkins v. Virginia, the U.S. Supreme Court decision banning the execution of mentally retarded persons, was decided on the grounds that “diminished capacities to understand and process mistakes and learn from experience, to engage in logical reasoning, to control impulses, and to understand the reactions of others” was cited as the evidence supporting a reduced view of criminal culpability.[32]

Cultural and religious issues[edit]

In Jewish religion, the “becoming a Bar or Bat Mitzvah” (literally “an [agent] who is subject to the law”) refers to the ceremony declaring that a Jewish child is morally and ethically responsible for their actions, is eligible to be called to read from the Torah, as well as responsibility to abide by the 613 laws written in the Torah.[citation needed]Traditionally, this ceremony awarded adult legal rights as well as the right to marry. Similarly, Christian churches hold Confirmation as a rite of passage in early adolescence. The rite holds fewer practical responsibilities than the Bar/Bat Mitzavah, but carries ethical and moral consequences. In all churches, of age Christians are responsible for going to church on Sundays and for confessing their sins periodically; within certain denominations it is also a common practice to warn children that it would be a mortal sin (an act punishable by banishment to hell) to lapse in these responsibilities.

Prom is celebrated throughout many countries of the world following or prior to final coursework for the year or after graduation. Various parties, ceremonies, or gatherings are held, ranging in their focus on academics, bonding, or as a farewell. In some Western European countries a post-degree party consists of burning notebooks and final projects. In certain countries, such as Colombia and the United States, the prom has come to take on a dual role of celebrating both academic achievement as well as sexual maturity. Quinceañera, in parts of Latin America, Début in the Philippines, Ji Li in China, and Sweet Sixteen in the United States coincide closely with graduation, which highlights the importance and broad recognition of the transition; however, these celebrations have been most prominently celebrated only by girls up until recently.

A number of traditions are associated with the earlier critical maturation point of menarche. A girl’s menarche is commemorated in varying ways, with some traditional Jewish customs defining it as a contamination, with the customs shaped around cleaning it away and ensuring it does not make anything or one unclean.[33] This served a historical purpose of blocking women from taking part in economic or political events.[34] The Maori of New Zealand, the Tinne Indians of the Yukon, the Chichimilia of Mexico, and the Eskimos, among other groups, all hold varyingly negative beliefs about the time of menarche and what dangers it brings.

For boys and young men, practices such as scarification and hazing act as a rite of passage into a group. These practices test and assert the expectations for pain tolerance and allegiance for men in those groups. Various branches of the military hold similar formal proving rituals, such as boot camp, that, aside from serving to train entrants, also demarcate an initial recognition of maturity in the organization, with successive experiences building upon that. Many occupations and social groups recognize similar tiers of maturity within the group across many cultures, which emphasise maturity as a form of status.

Age[edit]

While older persons are generally perceived as more mature and to possess greater credibility, psychological maturity is not determined by one’s age.[35][36] However, for legal purposes, people are not considered psychologically mature enough to perform certain tasks (such as driving, consenting to sex, signing a binding contract or making medical decisions) until they have reached a certain age. In fact, judge Julian Mack, who helped create the juvenile court system in the United States, said that juvenile justice was based on the belief that young people do not always make good decisions because they are not mature, but this means that they can be reformed more easily than adults.[37] However, the relationship between psychological maturity and age is a difficult one, and there has been much debate over methods of determining maturity, considering its subjective nature, relativity to the current environment and/or other factors, and especially regarding social issues such as religion, politics, culture, laws, etc. [38]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wechsler, David (1 March 1950). “Intellectual Development and Psychological Maturity”. Child Development. 21 (1): 45–50. doi:10.2307/1126418. JSTOR 1126418. PMID 15420813.
  2. ^ W.A., Hunt (1941). “Recent developments in the field of emotion”. Psychological Bulletin. 38 (5): 249–276. doi:10.1037/h0054615.
  3. ^ Adler, Nancy (November 1997). “Purpose in Life”. Psychosocial workgroup. MacArthur. Retrieved 2011-11-03.
  4. ^ University, Johns Hopkins (1885). “Circulars”. 4. The Ohio State University: 106.
  5. ^ Bruner, Jerome S. (1 January 1972). “Nature and uses of immaturity”. American Psychologist. 27 (8): 687–708. doi:10.1037/h0033144.
  6. ^ Bjorklund, DF (September 1997). “The role of immaturity in human development”. Psychological Bulletin. 122 (2): 153–69. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.453.8039. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.122.2.153. PMID 9283298.
  7. ^ Johnson Ph.D, M.P.H, M.D., Ph.D, Giedd, M.D, Sara B, Robert W, Jay N. (2009). “Adolescent Maturity and the Brain: The Promise and Pitfalls of Neuroscience Research in Adolescent Health Policy”. Journal of Adolescent Health. 45 (3): 216–221. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.05.016. PMC 2892678. PMID 19699416.
  8. ^ Erik H. Erikson (1968). Identity: Youth and Crisis. W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-31144-0. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  9. ^ Kemph, John P. (1 March 1969). “Erik H. Erikson. Identity, youth and crisis. New York: W. W. Norton Company, 1968”. Behavioral Science. 14 (2): 154–159. doi:10.1002/bs.3830140209.
  10. ^ J. Eugene Wright (1 October 1982). Erikson, identity and religion. Seabury Press. ISBN 978-0-8164-2362-0. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  11. ^ Francis L. Gross (1 February 1987). Introducing Erik Erikson: an invitation to his thinking. University Press of America. ISBN 978-0-8191-5789-8. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  12. ^ Roweton, William E. (1 April 1988). “Gross, F. L., Jr. (1987). Introducing Erik Erikson: An invitation to his thinking. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. 148 pp., $23.50 (hard cover), $10.75 (paper)”. Psychology in the Schools. 25 (2): 209–210. doi:10.1002/1520-6807(198804)25:2<209::AID-PITS2310250218>3.0.CO;2-B.
  13. ^ Herbert Ginsburg; Sylvia Opper (1988). Piaget’s Theory of Intellectual Development. Prentice-Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-675166-3. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  14. ^ Nucci, Larry (21 March 1981). “Conceptions of Personal Issues: A Domain Distinct from Moral or Societal Concepts”. Child Development. 52 (1): 114–21. doi:10.2307/1129220. JSTOR 1129220.
  15. ^ Laupa, Marta (1 March 1995). “Children’s reasoning about authority in home and school contexts”. Social Development. 4 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.1995.tb00047.x.
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Continue reading “Wikipedia in Vietnamese on ‘Maturity’”

100 Conversations

In which nothing happens

[deleted]

All that, and then I realized, what is the point, then, of trying to make anything here in Vietnam? After all, it’s not my place, it’s not my land, it’s not my culture, and I don’t think the same way. Good to know this, so that I can remember what I do feel, think, and engage with well, and deeply. Mostly: good conversations. Sometimes over food.

‘You’re in Vietnam! I love the food’: what people say to me when they find out I am here

Food that is new, that’s always fun.

[deleted]

‘Eat.’

Right, then.

If I’m gonna be here another year, then, I might as well just slow it down, stop trying so hard to foist ‘innovative thinking’ around wherever I go here and simply stop. Take. My time. And enjoy it.

Atelier S P A C E popup // HCMC, January 2021

 

Here’s the journey, then.

So now, 2021, I’m ready for you. I can wait. I can take my time. I can be patient. I can extend my visa and lease month-to-month, indefinitely.

I’m okay with uncertainty, sure, that’s always been the case, especially when you grow up the way I did in the places where I did, because, [deleted].

 

Change is the only constant

But now I’m also okay with the loss of the framework of trying to ‘work’ my way out of my quiet time. I don’t care to build anything here. No network that I’ve tried to create is of high-value. You’re lucky if they show up for a first meeting; that’s been my experience. Maybe it’s too hard, speaking in English with me. There are exceptions, I am damn lucky to have met people like A and D who are helping me remember the parts of myself that people at home used to like: a new way of showing up, showing things, sharing ideas, and pushing the boundaries of what isn’t yet. Sometimes I think it’s philosophy. I used to pack it up here at DK as something called design, but no. It’s not that. I just want people to think.

To ask themselves questions.

Atelier S P A C E HCMC popup / October 2020

 

So here I am.

‘You’re a real artist.’ People say this to me more often than I realize. Now I ought to pay attention to it. I can accept the compliment now.

I can say, ‘Thank you.’

Atelier S P A C E / Riga. HT ZO. Photo by DK 2019

 

Not once, not twice, but dozens of times over the trips I’ve taken in Latvia, Lithuania, Malaysia, and here in Vietnam, have said these words to me: You are a real artist. (I’m skipping some countries because I don’t want to write about all the things I’ve done and all the places I’ve been. Some insecure people might get angry and upset and toss weird notes towards me, to try to get me to stop shining so much. [deleted].) Which is why I don’t do that. It’s my party. I can do it the way I want. But behind closed doors, that’s more my thing.

 

Design. Discovery. Repeat..

Right, then 2021.

Bring it on.

Happy one-year anniversary in Vietnam, to me.

And soon, happy [deleted].

HT V. Cảm ơn. See you soon;), and MT in S., thank you, too.

 

Cojournal Project

'S' is for Sincerity · 100 Conversations · A Philosophy of the Moment · Ideas of Curiosity · The Muse

Emergence

I’m in a cafe with old men greeting each other and sitting together having their usuals, it looks like, and I’m in the back, as far from the outside smoke as I can be while still managing to catch the wifi signal. In my zone, kind of an old schoolhouse-looking thing that reminds me of rural North Carolina and the elementary school I had had to go to there, with its attendant brokenness and dirt and crusts of old stories that may or may not speak of pain, all that, I am having a mango smoothie. It’s not a smoothie like you think it is if you are used to ‘smoothie’ and its saccharine, overpackaged, too much neon, brand-picture in the United States.

It’s a sinh tố xoài. Damn good, this.

Simple, everyday things.

Today I shared a few pictures of foodstuffs with my newly reconnected with acquaintances Stateside wondering what the hell I am doing in Vietnam. It has been a year. I guess it’s been a year for everyone, but yeah.

A year of silence amidst a global pandemic that seems to have no end in the near future… ?

It’s been a year of solitude, like seriously, for me. I’m cut from the place and people who know me in the way that you know people when you have a history with them. For better or worse, this is my situation. In many ways I am relearning, re-assessing and coming to terms with the fact that I don’t really need to integrate into the models that have been imposed by, say, colonialism, or racism, or misogyny, the patriarchy, social hierarchies, different cultural norms, immigrant thinking, ‘nationalism,’ religious beliefs, et al. In short, all the lines that get in the way of just being… who we really are.

Who am I? [deleted]

The work of art is to show man who he really is, I heard, spoken on the stage of a giant theater in London, maybe around 2015. I forgot the year now. The year is blurry. I just remember the line. I remember it, and I remember thinking, That’s right. Still feels right. No popping over to the UK to speak English these days. Just laying low, studying the language here, passing through digital archives of my old travels to publish new things, with our programs, in S P A C E, Papers, and the Cojournal. My hangouts, on the web.

A year of solitude, though, and I also know something new. There is such a thing as art for the sake of art, art for an audience of… One.

Solo.

Is a good moment.

Too.

100 Conversations · Desk Notes · Experiments in Expression

Innovation in Ho Chi Minh City? First learn this.

Since 2013, DK has been based in Phnom Penh. Our studio has been commissioned by large NGOs to do things like ‘innovation consulting’ and ‘design thinking’ projects. Clients include the United Nations Development Program, Development Innovations, and CARE International, for example.

I don’t have the low-down on what those things involved, specifically, because my teammate there in that city, Akira Morita, has handled everything for DK in Cambodia. That includes all the deliverables, networking there, and fielding queries so that I can focus on what I’m best at.

 

Doing things right, versus doing the right things

Namely, researching. Mostly by field testing. By doing things like guessing what I think might work and trying it. Like a chef in the kitchen exploring new recipes, or a jazz musician playing with others who love that music, I like to play with materials and collage stuff. Words and image. Papers. You can see some of that in our new portfolio for Atelier S P A C E, on Behance. (Here’s a link: http://behance.net/dipikakohli.)

But why is this important?

Because we—collective Humanity ‘we’—together need to turn a new page.

Obviously, because of rioting and military-trained right-wingers doing things like this, we need a change.

If you think so too, read on.

Play x Innovation x Design x S P A C E

New methods in spacemaking!, that’s fun.

Making S P A C E.

Space that is, not just like, overwhelmed by one mode of thought, but is by design made out of multiple angles and perspectives. This is no longer just feelgood politically correct ‘diversity’ stuff. I remember someone telling me straightfaced about an experiment where people were made to sit and talk to ‘a diverse person’. What is a ‘diverse person?’ A person with lots of different things going on inside of them? I mean to this person who told me it just meant, I think, non-white. So yeah. General systemic problem, here. How about this, though. How about finding ways to make better dialogues than just ‘diverse’ and ‘non-diverse’ people talking in pairs? Mmmhmmm. Enter S P A C E.

Doing it well takes some experience with this. Sure. Sure it does. It also takes willful participation (hence our tendency to go for self-selecting things, instead of grant-funded things because those, you know, are [deleted]). More things you need: curation and deliberation and intention-setting and work.

But when you show up, it feels good, and it flows… effortlessly. At least that is what I always hope, when I invite people to be part of the workshops and ateliers and other things that we do, here, behind the scenes. See: http://designkompany.com/create-with-dk

 

I love S P A C E

S P A C E is fun. S P A C E is light and also self-styled for self-discovery. Where does learning happen? When you find out something that you didn’t know, for yourself, that is true for you. Many artists I know resonate with this because people who make things are dancing in the margins of what ‘society’ says and they also are working out their feelings through their art, I find, too. I’m always happy if someone I discover becomes part of our conversations to the point where I get to ask if they want to co-create with me, in S P A CE. Like my friend Ilyas Kassam. I loved making an issue of S P A C E with him. Here it is, pictured on his website:


https://www.ilyaskassam.com/tour

I like making this kind of stuff so much.

 

‘Curiosity is my best friend’

Because it’s curiosity that calls us, to explore S P A C E further. Outwardly. Expansively. S P A C E kind of insists itself into the more socially accepted patterns of ‘doing things like this.’ The status quo needs to be pushed out, challenged. Because… cool stuff can happen… there. That’s what we did, making this issue, pictured above. It was all about expanding our boundaries and using the technologies at hand, too, to make it interesting. He said I had a ‘tech touch.’ I liked that !

That is of a quality that invites, and includes, very new angles, and perspectives.In order to invite the new. Curiosity is my best friend.

Obviously, that runs in contradiction to some of the more rigid, Type A styles of ‘doing business’ in Asia that are, well, let’s be really direct, shall we? More about power games, hierarchy-establishment, manipulation, and power harassment that comes up when you’re highly influenced by a management style that say, is from… well. Lots of places. It’s the norm, isn’t it? Sad.

Yeah.

 

Edits

I quickly exit from any encounter that feels icky in this way; they’re not interested in new thinking, new starts, new angles, and new ways of making because they’re really only interested in shining a light on… themselves. [deleted]

Have you heard this one?’

Some people, to feel taller, cut off the heads of others.’

Jealousies and stuff. Waste. Of. Time.

Those kinds of people get in the way of making cool things. And keep life boring and troublesome, because it’s not about celebrating the best of what each can bring, it’s about squashing actual creativity before it becomes a threat. You know what I mean? Gosh, some of my friends who worked in corporations know, and tell me. I’ve got a lot of friends in corporations, so I hear a lot of stories. Especially now that they’re all coming out of their prime years in their careers and realizing… it wasn’t really worth it. Years older, more tired, less excited, less jazzed.

They look at me and go, ‘What the. How did you…’

Not fall into the trap?

By leaving.

Everyone.

Who. Didn’t. Get it.

That included family members, old ‘friends’, and ex-colleagues who turned out to be sociopaths. Not even kidding.

Life is fun, huh?

I like this jpg:

 

Colorfully more, and more together

Instead of wasting time with the naysayers, the scapegoaters, the narcissists, the gaslighters, the weirdos, the ones who hate you just because you’re you, and the rest of them who resist actually becoming better versions of themselves because that’s too hard, I just write. Every. Single. Day. I type 103wpm. [Earlier in this post, up above, I linked to this, where you can actually hear me typing, in my Soundcloud called, Hi2.]

Fun.

I used to write for newspapers, and now I just write S P A C E. I love discovery, and I’ve been discovering a hell of a lot, but it’s kind of nice, sometimes, to put on my old reporter’s hat and look things up and find out more and then, actually, like, write something about it for others to read. So I’ll do that more, this year. After all I have the experience. I was an editor for four years, half that time for a daily in Seattle, and the other half of that time for an alt-weekly in southwest Ireland. These places were where I learned to brainstorm, discover stories, and get fast at writing something that told a story people could learn something from. Now I just add to that, with my own take on things, and my own design style. In S P A C E.

I still do Q&A’s sometimes, too. A few examples are this and this. I save the best of them for S P A C E. For our Spring 2021 series on Innovation, or whatever the title becomes closer to then, I’ll expand on some of the past articles, for example:

Raising the bar (properly)

Opposite of fostering a culture of innovation are things like top-down management style, over directing, not listening to others, and pretending to be a big-shot like you know what you’re doing. You can’t really learn how to open up to new ideas if you’re just trying to validate some broken sense of self. That’s normal, with narcissists, and narcissists drive our capitalist society.

They usually, the ones close to me?, try to take credit for everything I do. Pretty lame. But they try to, and later, I find out, and just kind of, well, chuckle.

Figure out your own stuff, and make it happen, for you.

Join S P A C E

I do that, with my friends, sometimes. Make those kinds of moments possible for self-discovery and exploration.

To get to know what we create together, you can subscribe to our weekly e-mag here: https://gumroad.com/designkompany/membership.

I’ll share updates there.

Or if you want be part of something ‘in the future’, you can make a donation to our projects, and let me know to keep you informed. You can do that by selecting the option that lets you get messages from the fundraiser, that’s me. And you’ll be kept informed of messages from me with exclusives on how to get invited to projects in S P A C E. I’ll only update those who are interested, and indicate such by doing the things I ask you to, in this paragraph. More from there.