In Việt Nam

Inflection point of trust

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_in_Vietnam


According to Wikipedia, ‘Reasons why the country had successfully prevented the virus in the past being overrun is the Delta variant, this strain is more transmissible than the previous ones but the government still using outdated policies and practices. After using the old methods – which had been very successful before, proved ineffective and the number of infections kept increasing, the government became confused and constantly came up with inconsistent anti-epidemic policies making scientists, doctors, and medical experts unconvinced.

‘After losing the opportunity to show they are an excellent example in pandemic control, the government is left with the harsher option of controlling information to keep its public image.* Then a chain reaction emerges. When trust with the central government reduced, each locality applies its own anti-epidemic methods that they consider effective while people resist lock down protocols. As a result, the outbreak became more severe, straining health care capacity.[292]

‘Another reason is Vietnam’s slow vaccine rollout. After the success in suppressing COVID-19 in 2020, the authorities displayed complacency and not taking the opportunity to purchase vaccine and implement immunization program when the number of cases still low. As the Delta variant was rampaging in India and reaching Vietnam, the country’s communist party was still in undergoing a leadership transition. The 13th Party Congress ended in early February 2021, but cabinet positions were not filled until May and June to wait the National Assembly conducted its voting. This power change diverted the government’s attention away from the vaccine procurement campaign and disrupted anti-epidemic activities. The weaker response to the pandemic than the previous government because of an overemphasis on growth has a negative impact on Vietnam’s worldwide reputation, as well as on local trust in the administration, making a rocky start for Phạm Minh Chính‘s new government.[293][294][295].


*This. Is the inflection point, according to me.

At the end of the day, it’s about trust. Transparency and dependability. If you suppress information, that’s not a good sign. I’m thinking many things, reading reports of the things going on in Vietnam that are being published outside of Vietnam.

To be continued.

Vietnamese News Express


Found in the Field · Gallery

Truyện ngắn | Short story


Truyện ngắn | Short story


Mathias P. R. Redin

***

Regarding the concept of tight, short, and meaningful.
What can we learn from the short story?

***

S P A C E quests S P A C E

***

Curated by
Dipika Kohli

Artists names appear below each image

Words
Wikipedia



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:


Truyện ngắn là độc tấu. Tiểu thuyết là giao hưởng. Tiểu thuyết hay truyện dài thì cứ triền miên theo thời gian, đôi khi có quãng hồi ức trở ngược lại. Truyện ngắn thì gây cho người đọc một nút thắt, một khúc mắc cần giải đáp. Cái nút đó càng ngày càng thắt lại đến đỉnh điểm thì đột ngột cởi tung ra, khiến người đọc hả hê, hết băn khoăn.

//

Short stories are the solos. Fiction is symphony. The short story is a literary genre, and usually the stories,  told in prose, tend to be shorter, more concise, and meaningful than longer stories like novels. Usually, short stories are only a few lines to several dozen pages in length, while novels are difficult to stop at that number. Therefore, the story situation is always the most important issue in the art of short stories.


Sunguk Kim

‘Short Story’ is the working title of an upcoming issue of S P A C E. Call for submissions will be shared through our membership community. Membership details are outlined at this page. More to make, more to say, more to share. When we get to the good conversation spaces, with the right people, in the proper time. Let’s converse? Let’s play.

Ideas of Curiosity

What is Post-postmodernism?

Hi.

Esoterica, today.

Post-postmodernism, anyone?

Right, for those who are still with me…


Yeah, two ‘posts’:

Post-postmodernism.

Not a mistake.


Been thinking about this since the phrase fell across my radar a few years ago, in response to some things I was making like 16N (‘most people, ‘What the…’?’) and other salons, workshops, conversation spaces in real life for the serendipitous encounter. A few pics:



So what is ‘post post modernism?’ Large, cumbersome, and unwieldy topic. Also not much is talked about there, yet. It’s a good time to bring it up; so let me try.

I’ll start with the definition from Wikipedia

Post-Postmodernism is a general term used to describe new developments emerging from postmodernism. A similar term is metamodernism. Put less simply, post-postmodernism is a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture which are emerging from and reacting to postmodernism.


History[change | change source]


Modernism began around 1900. It was a rejection of tradition and an attempt to see the world differently. Events such as World War 2 and the Great Depression made many feel modernism had failed. This led to postmodernism, which is cold and skeptical of the grand narrative of Western Society. This grand narrative is explained by Jean-François Lyotard as something.[2] Postmodernism is a very broad term that cannot be defined by specific themes. It is an all-encompassing way of thinking.


Advances such as the internet have changed the way we live, making the world a smaller place but also making communication and interaction with things around us less intimate. Post-Postmodernism takes this as a key reason why a return to sincerity and authentic expression is the way forward for the 21st Century.



Definitions[change | change source]


Post-postmodernism is a very new idea that is still forming. There are many different ideas about how post-postmodernism could evolve and shape culture. They look to where faith, trust, dialogue, performance, and sincerity can work to overcome postmodern irony.


‘The search for authenticity’


Most scholars would agree that modernism began around 1900 and continued on as the dominant cultural force in the intellectual circles of Western culture well into the mid-twentieth century.[1]


Like all eras, modernism encompasses many competing individual directions and is impossible to define as a discrete unity or totality. However, its chief general characteristics are often thought to include an emphasis on “radical aesthetics, technical experimentation, spatial or rhythmic, rather than chronological form, [and] self-conscious reflexiveness”[2] as well as the search for authenticity in human relations, [Emphasis mine] abstraction in art, and utopian striving. These characteristics are normally lacking in postmodernism or are treated as objects of irony [Emphasis mine]


 

May 2021

Postmodernism arose after World War II as a reaction to the perceived failings of modernism, whose radical artistic projects had come to be associated with totalitarianism[3] or had been assimilated into mainstream culture. [Emphasis mine] … Since the 1960s, postmodernism has been a dominant, though not undisputed, force in art, literature, film, music, drama, architecture, history, and continental philosophy. Salient features of postmodernism are normally thought to include the ironic play with styles, citations and narrative levels,[6] a metaphysical skepticism or nihilism towards a “grand narrative” of Western culture,[7] a preference for the virtual at the expense of the real (or more accurately, a fundamental questioning of what ‘the real’ constitutes)[8] and a “waning of affect”[9] on the part of the subject, who is caught up in the free interplay of virtual, endlessly reproducible signs inducing a state of consciousness similar to schizophrenia.[10]

Since the late 1990s there has been a small but growing feeling both in popular culture and in academia that postmodernism “has gone out of fashion.”[11]


A common theme of current attempts to define post-postmodernism is emerging as one where faith, trust, dialogue, performance, and sincerity can work to transcend postmodern irony. [deleted]


In his 2006 paper The Death of Postmodernism and Beyond, British scholar Alan Kirby formulated a socio-cultural assessment of post-postmodernism that he calls “pseudo-modernism”.[23] Kirby associates pseudo-modernism with the triteness and shallowness resulting from the instantaneous, direct, and superficial participation in culture [Emphasis mine] made possible by the internet, mobile phones, interactive television and similar means: “In pseudo-modernism one phones, clicks, presses, surfs, chooses, moves, downloads.”[23]


Feature image: Zines by DK, S P A C E | Autumn 2020, ‘Trust.’

'S' is for Sincerity · Found in the Field · Ideas of Curiosity

A life of Authenticity & Social Sustainability

Researching today for a post sometime soon about social sustainability, especially in Vietnam, I found this on Wikipedia about ‘LOHAS’ lifestyles.


It reminded me of 2006 in Seattle, when DK had just gotten started and when we had, way back then, as we aim to now, I feel, patronized other labels that also support environmentally (and especially socially) sustainable ideals. Truly and sincerely doing this, I mean. Not greenwashing or BS or nonsense. Just. Doing. Good things, in good ways. No one is perfect and of course we all have to make money to live; but that doesn’t mean we have to sacrifice things. Things like, for example, taking the time that it requires to nurture relationships that add value to our lives in other ways, or do the work it must require to foundationally, and bolsteringly, build the communities we want to be a part of because they help us grow. You need to have a structure in place for a form to work well; the structure is the engineering bit. The form is all image-y these days and lacks substance, I feel*, which is why I’m getting back to my core work in Engineering and related fields (environmental work, sustainability, et al). It’s not something I can talk about publicly yet, but maybe, maybe I can later.

[*Aside: For further reading, refer to Guy DeBord’s Society of the Spectacle.]…

But yeah.

If LOHAS came about in the mid-2000s, what about ALOASS. A Life of Authenticity and Social Sustainability, for 202Xs? Hrm.

Much, much more to say about this. Soonish, or whenever it makes sense to share, I’ll get to it. If I want. For now, this is this. Here is this snippet, a kind of footnote for my future post. This bit’s from Wikipedia…


Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability (LOHAS) is a demographic defining a particular market segment related to sustainable living, “green” ecological initiatives, and generally composed of a relatively upscale and well-educated population segment. The author Paul H. Ray, who coined the term Cultural Creatives*:“What you’re seeing is a demand for products of equal quality that are also virtuous.”[1][2] Included in the cultural creative demographic are consumers of New Age goods and services.[3][4]



*Cultural Creatives”[edit]

Just under half of the CC population comprises the more educated, leading-edge thinkers. This includes many writers, artists, musicians, psychotherapists, alternative health care providers and other professionals. They combine a serious focus on their spirituality with a strong passion for social activism.

Green “Cultural Creatives”[edit]

The more secular and extroverted wing of the “Cultural Creatives”. They tend to follow the opinions of the core group and have more conventional religious outlooks. Their world views less thought-out than the core group and less intensely held.

Characteristics[edit]

Ray and Sherry Anderson created a questionnaire to identify “Cultural Creatives” in Western society. The characteristics below were identified as qualities of a “Cultural Creative”. Agreement with 10 or more indicates status as a “Cultural Creative”.

  • love of nature and deep caring about its preservation, and its natural balance.
  • strong awareness of the planet-wide issues like climate change and poverty and a desire to see more action on them
  • being active themselves
  • willingness to pay higher taxes or spend more money for goods if that money went to improving the environment
  • emphasize the importance of developing and maintaining relationships
  • emphasize the importance of helping others and developing their unique gifts
  • volunteer with one or more good causes
  • intense interest in spiritual and psychological development (personal growth)
  • see spirituality as an important aspect of life, but worry about religious fundamentalism
  • desire equality for women and men in business, life and politics
  • concern and support of the well-being of all women and children
  • support spending more money on education, community development programs, and the support of a more ecologically sustainable future
  • unhappy with the left and right in politics
  • optimism towards the future
  • involved in creating a new and better way of life
  • concerned with big business and the means they use to generate profits, including destroying the environment and exploiting poorer countries
  • unlikely to overspend or be heavily in debt
  • dislike the emphasis of modern cultures on “making it” and “success”, on consuming and making money
  • like people, places and things that are different or exotic

Ray and Anderson: “Values are the best single predictor of real behavior”. The list below outlines the values dictating a “Cultural Creative”‘s behavior:

  • Authenticity, actions consistent with words and beliefs

  • Engaged action and whole systems learning; seeing the world as interwoven and connected

  • Idealism and activism

  • Globalism and ecology

  • The growing cultural significance of women

Core “Cultural Creatives” also value altruism, self-actualization, and spirituality.


In business[edit]

The concept of “innerpreneurs” to denote persons who create a business that focuses mainly on their own inner goals and development was first introduced by Rebecca Maddox in her 1996 book Inc. Your Dreams[3] The “innerpreneurs” concept is also central to Ron Rentel’s 2008 book Karma Queens, Geek Gods and Innerpreneurs, in which he identified the “Cultural Creative” subculture in entrepreneurship. Rentel named entrepreneurial “Cultural Creatives”, “innerpreneurs”.



While entrepreneurs use their business for monetary gain, “innerpreneurs” use their business to find personal fulfillment (creatively, spiritually, emotionally) and create social change.


“Innerpreneurs” have the defining characteristics of an entrepreneur:

  • high need for achievement
  • high need for independence
  • low need for conformity
  • internal focus of control
  • love of ambiguity
  • propensity for risk-taking
  • obsession with opportunity*

[*Editor’s note: Super true, for me, here. Ahem.]


In 2008, there was much discussion in the Western media on the ‘creative economy’ and the importance of the ‘creative class’. Richard Florida published a series of books on this identified ‘creative class’ and their upcoming economic importance. Bill Gates spoke at the World Economic Forum 2008 on the need for ‘creative capitalism’ as a solution to the world’s problems. They theorize that being creative and inventive will be the key to business success in the 21st century and that a country’s economic success will be determined by its capitalists’ ability to mobilize, attract and retain human creative talent. See Douglas Rushkoff for an update on how this evolved.

Use of the term integral[edit]

Ray gives the term “Integral Culture” to the growing subculture. He also refers to this as transmodernism, which he refers to as the “Cultural Creatives”. They are concerned with ecological sustainability and in the case of a core group have a commitment to personal and spiritual development. These are individuals who can meld the best of traditionalism and modernism to create a new synthesis, having a cognitive style based on synthesizing varied information from many sources into a big picture.[4][1] This term can also apply to integral theory, a conceptual framework expounded by Ken Wilber.


Products and services[edit]

The marketplace includes goods and services such as:[citation needed]


References[edit]

  1. ^ Cortese, Amy (July 20, 2003). “They Care About the World (and They Shop, Too)”. Business Section. New York Times.
  2. ^ Everage, Laura (October 1, 2002). “Understanding the LOHAS Lifestyle”. Gourmet Retailer Magazine. Nielsen Business Media. Archived from the original on 2015-02-21. Retrieved 2014-04-06.
  3. ^ Jump up to: ab Judith Rosen (2002-05-27). “Crossing the Boundaries:Regardless of its label, this increasingly mainstream category continues to broaden its subject base”. — Publishers Weekly.
  4. ^ David Moore (June 17, 2002). “Body & Soul, yoga w/o the yoyos”. Media Life. Archived from the original on November 13, 2002.
  5. ^ Cohen, Maurie J. (January 2007). “Consumer credit, household financial management, and sustainable consumption”. International Journal of Consumer Studies. 31 (1): 57–65. doi:10.1111/j.1470-6431.2005.00485.x. S2CID154771421.
  6. ^ Halweil, Brianink =; Lisa Mastny; Erik Assadourian; Linda Starke; Worldwatch Institute (2004). State of the World 2004: A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 167. ISBN0-393-32539-3.
  7. ^ http://www.lohas-asia.org/about-us/

Continue reading “A life of Authenticity & Social Sustainability”

'S' is for Sincerity

‘Be flexible receptors of what comes to us..’

Two years ago in an email that was the precursor to the e-mag, S P A C E, I had shared this by H. Murakami.


‘Today, when the world is growing ever smaller through the spectacular development of the Internet and the increasingly rapid flow of economic interchange, we find ourselves in a pressing situation whereby, like it or not, our very survival depends on our ability to exchange cultural methodologies on an equivalent basis.

‘To turn toward a stance of national exclusivity, regionalism, or fundamentalism, in which nations become isolated politically, economically, culturally, or religiously could bring about unimaginable dangers on a worldwide scale.

‘If only in that sense, we novelists and other creative individuals must simultaneously broadcast our cultural messages outward and be flexible receptors of what comes to us from abroad. Even as we unwaveringly preserve our own identity, we must exchange that which can be exchanged and understand that which can be mutually understood. Our role is perfectly clear.’ —Haruki Murakami, 2006, in an introduction to the collected stories Rashomon and others, by Ryunosuke Akutagawa


After that I had posted an invitation to co-create with me in the Cojournal Project, which led to things, that led to other things, and now, here we are. S P A C E is changing. That’s its nature. But the next things are next, and they involve… food. See Zines & Cuisines? The gallery is at this link: https://www.behance.net/gallery/120909493/Zines-Cuisines

Ideas of Curiosity · Interviews

‘Don’t just document: make art’: photographer Benjamin Nwaneampeh

One of my favorite photographers in the world agreed to talk with me about the art of making street photos, back in 2018. I loved that conversation. It was so, so fun and delightful.

S P A C E makes space for that kind of conversation–it meanders, flows, and is a sort of exchange that you wouldn’t have any way of guessing what the outcome would be, from the start. I met the artist whom I got to know over instagram then in person, then I asked if I could talk with him for a bit and maybe even record it. It was my first foray into ‘podcasting’. I didn’t get too far, to be honest. I felt less and less interested in hearing my own voice but yeah, the people that I’m lucky enough to get to meet, wherever I go in the world (or surf online) are quite fascinating, at moments like the one in this conversation you can see… how… artists… think. Wait. Think is the wrong word. Feel. [deleted]


In this frank conversation between Design Kompany’s Dipika Kohli and portrait photographer Benjamin Nwaneampeh, we talk about how to get started, the culture of wanting things *now*, equipment, style, the city, and the art of peoplewatching.

‘Forget what people are telling you what street photography *is*,’ says Nwaneampeh. ‘Just go out and take photographs. If you like your pictures, and you feel you’re maturing, you’re growing in it, then just keep doing it. Just keep shooting.’


[deleted] … and then I think… yeah. It’s mostly about that. Mostly about art, itself. Why it isn’t just documenting whatever. Why it’s about seeing. Seeing seeing. And what that means, to each of us. In conversation: that’s where you find things out. At least, that’s where I do.

This one, we recorded together.

You can listen to it.

Here’s a link.

https://soundcloud.com/designkompany/make-art-1

Thanks;)

Experiments in Expression · Papers

3 May | Call for Papers

Papers is a way for people to explore ideas together, in a nonjudgmental safe space with a seasoned editorial team headed by Dipika Kohli at DK, to guide.


May 2021 Register at: http://call4papers.eventbrite.com/

What is Papers?

An online writing-and-design-and-generally-creative circle for community. Ambient community that is. International and asynchronous: ‘Papers.’

Here’s how it works.

 

How does it work?

No meetings. Just email: asynchronous, international. Four prompts, sent on Mondays at 7AM USEST. Email converstaions follow with your group, in order to develop your ideas, push past the edges of your creative thining, and link you to our international community.

 

Why?

Because we are tired of superficial, inane chatter and want some actual depth, progression and substance in our online converations. That’s why. Four weeks of amazing online conversations with a max of 4 hosted by DK. More than 120 issues of our zine have been created through ongoing conversations with our guests and collaborators.

Writing. Sharing. Making. New stories. Together. In S P A C E.

Advance bookings only. 

Register online.

Here is a link:

http://call4papers.eventbrite.com/

Thanks.

'S' is for Sincerity · 100 Conversations · Ideas of Curiosity · Miscellany · Relational Aesthetics

Wikipedia in Vietnamese on ‘Maturity’

Trong tâm lý học, trưởng thành là khả năng thích ứng được với môi trường xã hội, nhận thức được:)) Thời gian và địa điểm chính xác để có những cư xử đúng mực và biết được khi nào nên làm gì, tùy theo hoàn cảnh và phụ thuộc vào nền văn hóa xã hội mà ta đang sống.  Tuổi thành niên. Tuổi trưởng thành. Người lớn.

The translation on that page is this…
Mature
In psychology, maturity is the ability to adapt to a social environment, awareness :)) The exact time and place to behave properly and know when to do, depending on circumstances and depending on the social culture in which we live. Age of adulthood. Manhood. Adults.
And. That’s all.
In giant contrast, below is the English entry. But before I get to that, um.

Can someone reading this page, who follows this blog, and has native Vietnamese, can you, um. Please go and add more to this page on Wikipedia in Vietnamese? I think the emojis detract from the serious nature of the reportage, too. No?:)) I mean I love this:)))) emoji stuff but, on Wikipedia, about ‘maturity?’ Come on. Hãy nói về điều đó.

It’s one hell of a big topic and I think… important. Personally. What do you think though? Gosh I really want to know.
Perhaps we Western-educated lot overthink this thing but you know, look at this. The same idea, in the English entry, on Wikipedia, is miles and miles long. Seriously look. I’ll just paste it here.
Below is the English entry.

Maturity (psychological)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to navigationJump to search

In psychology, maturity is the ability to respond to the environment being aware of the correct time and location to behave and knowing when to act, according to the circumstances and the culture of the society one lives in.[1][2] Adult development and maturity theories include the purpose in life concept, in which maturity emphasizes a clear comprehension of life’s purpose, directedness, and intentionality, which contributes to the feeling that life is meaningful.[3]

The status of maturity is distinguished by the shift away from reliance on guardianship and the oversight of an adult in decision-making acts. Maturity has different definitions across legal, social, religious, political, sexual, emotional, and intellectual contexts.[4] The age or qualities assigned for each of these contexts are tied to culturally-significant indicators of independence that often vary as a result of social sentiments. The concept of psychological maturity has implications across both legal and social contexts, while a combination of political activism and scientific evidence continue to reshape and qualify its definition. Because of these factors, the notion and definition of maturity and immaturity is somewhat subjective.

American psychologist Jerome Bruner proposed the purpose of the period of immaturity as being a time for experimental play without serious consequences, where a young animal can spend a great deal of time observing the actions of skilled others in coordination with oversight by and activity with its mother.[5] The key to human innovation through the use of symbols and tools, therefore, is re-interpretive imitation that is “practiced, perfected, and varied in play” through extensive exploration of the limits on one’s ability to interact with the world. Evolutionary psychologists have also hypothesized that cognitive immaturity may serve an adaptive purpose as a protective barrier for children against their own under-developed meta-cognition and judgment, a vulnerability that may put them in harm’s way.[6] For youth today, the steadily extending period of ‘play’ and schooling going into the 21st century comes as a result of the increasing complexity of our world and its technologies, which too demand an increasing intricacy of skill as well as a more exhaustive set of pre-requisite abilities. Many of the behavioral and emotional problems associated with adolescence may arise as children cope with the increased demands placed on them, demands which have become increasingly abstracted from the work and expectations of adulthood.

Socio-emotional and cognitive markers[edit]

Although psychological maturity is specifically grounded in the autonomy of one’s decision-making ability, these outcomes are deeply embedded in not only cognition, but also in lifelong processes of emotional, social and moral development.[7] Various theorists have provided frameworks for recognizing the indicators of maturity. Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development describe progression into adult maturity, with each maturational stage characterized by a certain kind of psychsocial conflict.[8][9] The “Identity” stage is characterized as being mainly concerned with issues of role exploration and role confusion, and also the exploration of sexual and other identities. Adolescents navigate a web of conflicting values and selves in order to emerge as ‘the person one has come to be’ and ‘the person society expects one to become’.[10]Erikson did not insist that stages begin and end at globally pre-defined points, but that particular stages such as “Identity” could extend into adulthood for as long as it took to resolve the conflict.[11][12] Piaget’s theory of cognitive development defines the formal operational stage as a plateau reached once an individual can think logically using symbols and is marked by a shift away from “concrete” thought, or thought bound to immediacy and facts, and toward “abstract” thought, or thought employing reflection and deduction.[13] These theories have shaped the investigation of adolescent development and reflect the limitations of cognition prior to adulthood.

While maturity is often termed as a label awarded to a child, research has revealed that children themselves hold a clear sense of their own autonomy and personal jurisdiction. For instance, American elementary-aged school children demonstrated an acknowledgement of the limits of their parents’ authority over their choice of dress, hairstyle, friends, hobbies, and media choices.[14] But this constrained earlier concept of personal autonomy later develops into a broader understanding of individual freedoms, with an understanding of freedom of speech as a universal right emerging by elementary school age.[15] However, younger children do have difficulty with maintaining a consistent view on universal rights, with 75% of first-grade children expressing uncertainty about prohibiting freedom of speech in Canada.[16] But this same study also found that 6- to 11-year-old Canadian children rejected nondemocratic systems on the basis of violating principles of majority vote, equal representation, and right to a voice, which provides evidence for an emerging knowledge of political decision-making skills from a young age.

Biological and evolutionary markers[edit]

Where maturity is an earned status that often carries responsibilities, immaturity is then defined in contrast by the absence of serious responsibility and in its place is the freedom for unmitigated growth. This period of growth is particularly important for humans, who undergo a unique four-stage pattern of development (infancy, childhood, juvenility, adolescence) that has been theorized to confer a number of evolutionarily competitive benefits (Locke & Bogin, 2006). In infancy, motor development stretches long into the early years of life, necessitating that young infants rely on their mothers almost entirely. This state of helplessness provides for an intensely close bond between infant and mother, where separation is infrequent and babies are rarely out of a caregiver’s arms.[17][18] For non-human primates and all non-human mammalian species the growth of the first permanent molar marks the end of lactation and the beginning of foraging, setting an early requirement for independence. Human children, on the other hand, do not have an advanced motor control capable of foraging and also lack the digestive capacity for unprepared food, and so have always relied on the active involvement of their mother and other caregivers in their care into childhood.[19]

The pre-frontal cortex, which is responsible for higher cognitive functions such as planning, decision-making, judgment and reasoning, develops and matures most rapidly during early adolescence and into the early 20s.[20] Accompanying the growth of the pre-frontal cortex is continued synaptic pruning (the trimming of rarely used synapses) as well as increased myelination of nerve fibers in the brain, which serves to insulate and speed up signal transmission between neurons. The incomplete development of this process contributes to the finding that adolescents use their brain less broadly than do adults when asked to inhibit a response and show less cross-talk (communication across diverse regions of the brain).[21] The brain’s “cross-talk” may be related to decision-making concerning risk-taking, with one study of American adolescents finding delayed reaction time and decreased spread across brain regions in a task asking them to determine whether a dangerous action is a good idea or not.[22] Steinberg observes that there is close overlap in the activated brain regions for socioemotional and reward information, which may pose a challenge when making decisions in the most high-risk peer contexts.[23] One study found that preference for small immediate rewards over larger long-term rewards was associated with increased activation with regions primarily responsible for socioemotional decision-making.[24]

Problems with alleged negative correlation between plasticity and critical thinking[edit]

One problem with the notion of mental maturity as in adults being both more critical and less plastic than children is that it assumes a negative correlation between plasticity and independent critical thinking. This assumption is criticized as the ability to clearly distinguish ideas from each other and critically assess them would increase the capacity for self-correction and not decrease it, making the correlation between plasticity and independent critical thinking positive and not negative.[25]

Legal and political issues[edit]

The definition and determination of maturity has been applied to the issue of criminal responsibility of juvenile offenders and to a number of legal ages. The age of majority, the most broadly applied legal threshold of adulthood, is typically characterized by recognition of control over oneself and one’s actions and decisions. The most common age threshold is 18 years of age, with thresholds ranging from 14 to 21 across nations and between provinces. Although age of majority is referred to as a jurisdiction’s legal age, the legal ages of various other issues of legal maturity like sexual consent or drinking and smoking ages are often different from the age of majority. Aside from age-based thresholds of maturity, restrictions based in a perceived intellectual immaturity also extend to those with a variety of mental impairments (generally defined as anyone with a mental disability that requires guardianship), with laws in place in most regions limiting the voting rights of the mentally disabled and often requiring the judgment of a court to declare fitness. Similar to those restrictions placed on children, persons with mental disabilities also have freedoms restricted and have their rights assigned to parental guardians.

One reason cited for why children and the mentally disabled are not permitted to vote in elections is that they are too intellectually immature to understand voting issues. This view is echoed in concerns about the adult voting population, with observers citing concern for a decrease in ‘civic virtue’ and ‘social capital,’ reflecting a generalized panic over the political intelligence of the voting population.[26] Although critics have cited ‘youth culture’ as contributing to the malaise of modern mass media’s shallow treatment of political issues, interviews with youth themselves about their political views have revealed a widespread sense of frustration in their political powerlessness as well as a strongly cynical view of the actions of politicians.[27] Several researchers have attempted to explain this sense of cynicism as a way of rationalizing the sense of alienation and legal exclusion of youth in political decision-making.[28][29]

Another reason cited against child voting rights is that children would be unduly biased by media and other societal pressures. On the whole, this view is unsubstantiated, with interviews with youth revealing that they often have a great deal of knowledge about news programming, media bias, the importance of evidence, evaluation of arguments on the merits of their evidence, as well as a preparedness for forming arguments of one’s own using available evidence. In cognitive research, some studies conducted in the 1970s offered a skeptical view of adolescent understanding of democratic principles like freedom of speech.[30] However, this research is now recognized to have used challenging and contradictory vignettes that placed a high demand on still-developing verbal and metacognitive skills[16] which are not recognized as requisite to an understanding of individual political rights. More recent research[16][31] has unveiled that even elementary school age children have a concept of freedom of speech and that by ages 8–9 this concept expands beyond a concern for personal autonomy and onto awareness for its social implications and the importance of the right to a political voice.

Maturity has also been taken into account when determining the fairness of the death penalty in cases involving mentally retarded or underage perpetrators. In Atkins v. Virginia, the U.S. Supreme Court decision banning the execution of mentally retarded persons, was decided on the grounds that “diminished capacities to understand and process mistakes and learn from experience, to engage in logical reasoning, to control impulses, and to understand the reactions of others” was cited as the evidence supporting a reduced view of criminal culpability.[32]

Cultural and religious issues[edit]

In Jewish religion, the “becoming a Bar or Bat Mitzvah” (literally “an [agent] who is subject to the law”) refers to the ceremony declaring that a Jewish child is morally and ethically responsible for their actions, is eligible to be called to read from the Torah, as well as responsibility to abide by the 613 laws written in the Torah.[citation needed]Traditionally, this ceremony awarded adult legal rights as well as the right to marry. Similarly, Christian churches hold Confirmation as a rite of passage in early adolescence. The rite holds fewer practical responsibilities than the Bar/Bat Mitzavah, but carries ethical and moral consequences. In all churches, of age Christians are responsible for going to church on Sundays and for confessing their sins periodically; within certain denominations it is also a common practice to warn children that it would be a mortal sin (an act punishable by banishment to hell) to lapse in these responsibilities.

Prom is celebrated throughout many countries of the world following or prior to final coursework for the year or after graduation. Various parties, ceremonies, or gatherings are held, ranging in their focus on academics, bonding, or as a farewell. In some Western European countries a post-degree party consists of burning notebooks and final projects. In certain countries, such as Colombia and the United States, the prom has come to take on a dual role of celebrating both academic achievement as well as sexual maturity. Quinceañera, in parts of Latin America, Début in the Philippines, Ji Li in China, and Sweet Sixteen in the United States coincide closely with graduation, which highlights the importance and broad recognition of the transition; however, these celebrations have been most prominently celebrated only by girls up until recently.

A number of traditions are associated with the earlier critical maturation point of menarche. A girl’s menarche is commemorated in varying ways, with some traditional Jewish customs defining it as a contamination, with the customs shaped around cleaning it away and ensuring it does not make anything or one unclean.[33] This served a historical purpose of blocking women from taking part in economic or political events.[34] The Maori of New Zealand, the Tinne Indians of the Yukon, the Chichimilia of Mexico, and the Eskimos, among other groups, all hold varyingly negative beliefs about the time of menarche and what dangers it brings.

For boys and young men, practices such as scarification and hazing act as a rite of passage into a group. These practices test and assert the expectations for pain tolerance and allegiance for men in those groups. Various branches of the military hold similar formal proving rituals, such as boot camp, that, aside from serving to train entrants, also demarcate an initial recognition of maturity in the organization, with successive experiences building upon that. Many occupations and social groups recognize similar tiers of maturity within the group across many cultures, which emphasise maturity as a form of status.

Age[edit]

While older persons are generally perceived as more mature and to possess greater credibility, psychological maturity is not determined by one’s age.[35][36] However, for legal purposes, people are not considered psychologically mature enough to perform certain tasks (such as driving, consenting to sex, signing a binding contract or making medical decisions) until they have reached a certain age. In fact, judge Julian Mack, who helped create the juvenile court system in the United States, said that juvenile justice was based on the belief that young people do not always make good decisions because they are not mature, but this means that they can be reformed more easily than adults.[37] However, the relationship between psychological maturity and age is a difficult one, and there has been much debate over methods of determining maturity, considering its subjective nature, relativity to the current environment and/or other factors, and especially regarding social issues such as religion, politics, culture, laws, etc. [38]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wechsler, David (1 March 1950). “Intellectual Development and Psychological Maturity”. Child Development. 21 (1): 45–50. doi:10.2307/1126418. JSTOR 1126418. PMID 15420813.
  2. ^ W.A., Hunt (1941). “Recent developments in the field of emotion”. Psychological Bulletin. 38 (5): 249–276. doi:10.1037/h0054615.
  3. ^ Adler, Nancy (November 1997). “Purpose in Life”. Psychosocial workgroup. MacArthur. Retrieved 2011-11-03.
  4. ^ University, Johns Hopkins (1885). “Circulars”. 4. The Ohio State University: 106.
  5. ^ Bruner, Jerome S. (1 January 1972). “Nature and uses of immaturity”. American Psychologist. 27 (8): 687–708. doi:10.1037/h0033144.
  6. ^ Bjorklund, DF (September 1997). “The role of immaturity in human development”. Psychological Bulletin. 122 (2): 153–69. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.453.8039. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.122.2.153. PMID 9283298.
  7. ^ Johnson Ph.D, M.P.H, M.D., Ph.D, Giedd, M.D, Sara B, Robert W, Jay N. (2009). “Adolescent Maturity and the Brain: The Promise and Pitfalls of Neuroscience Research in Adolescent Health Policy”. Journal of Adolescent Health. 45 (3): 216–221. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.05.016. PMC 2892678. PMID 19699416.
  8. ^ Erik H. Erikson (1968). Identity: Youth and Crisis. W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-31144-0. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  9. ^ Kemph, John P. (1 March 1969). “Erik H. Erikson. Identity, youth and crisis. New York: W. W. Norton Company, 1968”. Behavioral Science. 14 (2): 154–159. doi:10.1002/bs.3830140209.
  10. ^ J. Eugene Wright (1 October 1982). Erikson, identity and religion. Seabury Press. ISBN 978-0-8164-2362-0. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  11. ^ Francis L. Gross (1 February 1987). Introducing Erik Erikson: an invitation to his thinking. University Press of America. ISBN 978-0-8191-5789-8. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  12. ^ Roweton, William E. (1 April 1988). “Gross, F. L., Jr. (1987). Introducing Erik Erikson: An invitation to his thinking. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. 148 pp., $23.50 (hard cover), $10.75 (paper)”. Psychology in the Schools. 25 (2): 209–210. doi:10.1002/1520-6807(198804)25:2<209::AID-PITS2310250218>3.0.CO;2-B.
  13. ^ Herbert Ginsburg; Sylvia Opper (1988). Piaget’s Theory of Intellectual Development. Prentice-Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-675166-3. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  14. ^ Nucci, Larry (21 March 1981). “Conceptions of Personal Issues: A Domain Distinct from Moral or Societal Concepts”. Child Development. 52 (1): 114–21. doi:10.2307/1129220. JSTOR 1129220.
  15. ^ Laupa, Marta (1 March 1995). “Children’s reasoning about authority in home and school contexts”. Social Development. 4 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.1995.tb00047.x.
  16. ^ Jump up to: a b c Helwig, Charles C. (1 April 1998). “Children’s Conceptions of Fair Government and Freedom of Speech”. Child Development. 69 (2): 518–531. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06205.x. JSTOR 1132181.
  17. ^ Kim Ronald Hill; A. Magdalena Hurtado (1996). Aché Life History: The Ecology and Demography of a Foraging People. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0-202-36406-3. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  18. ^ Robert Alan LeVine; Barbara Bloom Lloyd (1966). Nyansongo: a Gusii community in Kenya. Wiley. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  19. ^ Lancaster, Jane B; Lancaster, Chet S (1983). Ortner, Donald J. (ed.). “Parental Investment: Human Uniqueness Compared to “Great Apes”: Likely Difference”. How Humans Adapt: A Biocultural Odyssey. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. 967 (2): 33–66Proceedings of the Seventh International Smithsonian Symposium
  20. ^ Johnson, Sara B.; Blum, Robert W.; Giedd, Jay N. (31 August 2009). “Adolescent Maturity and the Brain: The Promise and Pitfalls of Neuroscience Research in Adolescent Health Policy”. Journal of Adolescent Health. 45 (3): 216–221. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.05.016. PMC 2892678. PMID 19699416nihms:207310
  21. ^ Luna, Beatriz; Thulborn, Keith R.; Munoz, Douglas P.; Merriam, Elisha P.; Garver, Krista E.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Genovese, Christopher R.; Eddy, William F.; Sweeney, John A. (30 April 2001). “Maturation of Widely Distributed Brain Function Subserves Cognitive Development”. NeuroImage. 13(5): 786–793. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.330.7349. doi:10.1006/nimg.2000.0743. PMID 11304075.
  22. ^ Baird, Abigail A; Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Bennett, Craig M (April 2005). What were you thinking?: An fMRI study of adolescent decision making” (PDF). Poster Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society, New York.
  23. ^ Steinberg, Laurence (1 April 2007). “Risk Taking in Adolescence: New Perspectives From Brain and Behavioral Science”. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 16 (2): 55–59. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00475.x.
  24. ^ McClure, Samuel M.; Laibson, David I.; Loewenstein, George; Cohen, Jonathan D. (October 15, 2004). “Separate Neural Systems Value Immediate and Delayed Monetary Rewards” (PDF). Science. New Series. 306 (5695): 503–507. Bibcode:2004Sci…306..503M. doi:10.1126/science.1100907. PMID 15486304. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  25. ^ Cognitive Neuroscience, Marie T.Banich, Rebecca J. Compton
  26. ^ Putnam, Robert D. (1 December 1995). “Tuning In, Tuning Out: The Strange Disappearance of Social Capital in America”. PS: Political Science and Politics. 28(4): 664–683. doi:10.2307/420517. JSTOR 420517.
  27. ^ Buckingham, (1999). Oxford Review of Education, Political Education, 25, (1-2), pp. 171-184.
  28. ^ Eliasoph, Nina (31 July 1990). “Political culture and the presentation of a political self”. Theory and Society. 19 (4): 465–494. doi:10.1007/BF00137622. JSTOR 657799.
  29. ^ William A. Gamson (28 August 1992). Talking Politics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-43679-3. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  30. ^ Gallatin, Judith; Adelson, Joseph (1 April 1971). “Legal Guarantees of Individual Freedom: A Cross-National Study of the Development of Political Thought”. Journal of Social Issues. 27 (2): 93–108. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1971.tb00655.x.
  31. ^ Helwig, Charles C. (1 December 1997). “The Role of Agent and Social Context in Judgments of Freedom of Speech and Religion”. Child Development. 68 (3): 484–495. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1997.tb01953.x. JSTOR 1131673.
  32. ^ Ortiz, Adam (Jan 2004). “Cruel and Unusual Punishment: The Juvenile Death Penalty: Adolescence, Brain Development and Legal Culpability”. Juvenile Justice Center, American Bar Association. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  33. ^ Dena Taylor (1988). Red Flower: Rethinking Menstruation. Crossing Press. ISBN 978-0-89594-312-5. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  34. ^ Janice DeLaney (1 January 1988). The Curse: A Cultural History of Menstruation. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-01452-9. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  35. ^ Sheldon, K. M.; T. Kasser (2001). “Getting Older, Getting Better? Personal Strivings and Psychological Maturity Across the Life Span”. Developmental Psychology. 37 (4): 491–501. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.37.4.491. PMID 11444485.
  36. ^ Franz, Warren, Watson, Angell, Shepherd I, Howard C, John B, James R. (1919). “Psychological Bulletin, Volume 16”. Psychological Bulletin. American Psychological Association. 16: 312.
  37. ^ Mack, J. W. (1909). “The Juvenile Court”. Harvard Law Review. 23 (2): 104–122. doi:10.2307/1325042. JSTOR 1325042.
  38. ^ Steinberg, Laurence; Elizabeth Cauffman (June 1996). “Maturity of Judgment in Adolescence: Psychosocial Factors in Adolescent Decision Making”. Law and Human Behavior. 20 (3): 249–272. doi:10.1007/BF01499023. ISSN 0147-7307. JSTOR 1393975.

Continue reading “Wikipedia in Vietnamese on ‘Maturity’”

Experiments in Expression · Ideas of Curiosity · Relational Aesthetics

What is relational art? What are relational aesthetics?

I.
What Wikipedia says about relational art

 

Relational art or relational aesthetics is a mode or tendency in fine art practice originally observed and highlighted by French art critic Nicolas Bourriaud.Bourriaud defined the approach as “a set of artistic practices which take as their theoretical and practical point of departure the whole of human relations and their social context, rather than an independent and private space.”[1] The artist can be more accurately viewed as the “catalyst” in relational art, rather than being at the centre.[2]

Source: Wikipedia

 

II.
What ‘Happenings’ are and what Situationism was

American artist Allan Kaprowcoined the term “happenings” in 1959 to refer to ephemeral, somewhat theatrical, but also participatory, art-related events, many of which were conceived in such a way as to be intentionally open-ended, allowing for improvisation. Artists honored this sense of spontaneity by creating rough guidelines, rather than strict rules or scripts, for participants to follow. The particular social contexts/dynamics and groups of participants (which included the audience members) involved in each happening were integral to the form the events took, causing the same performance to develop differently each time it was carried out. The central belief held by artists involved in creating Happenings was that art could be brought into the realm of everyday life.

The Situationists, a group active from 1957 to 1962, were heavily influenced by Marxist theory, which purported that while living under capitalism, individuals experience alienation and social degradation in their daily lives. They were equally informed by Guy Debord‘s theory of “spectacle,” which states that under capitalism, the mediation of social relations occurs primarily through objects. Wanting to offer solutions toward both these concepts, Situational artists focused on creating works that brought people into direct, immediate encounters and experiences with each other.

For example, they used the strategy of détournement (defined as “turning [preexisting] expressions of the capitalist system and its media culture against itself”) to enact “Situationist pranks,” such as distributing misinformation through false broadcasts, pamphlets, and even church sermons. Another strategy used by the Situationists was the “dérive,” defined by Debord “as a mode of experimental behavior linked to the conditions of urban society: a technique of rapid passage through varied ambiances.” In other words, a dérive was an unplanned journey, like walking through a city’s streets, during which the individual (referred to by Debord as a “psychogeographer,” and also commonly understood as a sort of “flâneur” or romantic wanderer/stroller) allowed himself to be fully aware of, and engaged with, the surrounding environment. They also organized “situations” which were very similar to “happenings.”

Source: https://www.theartstory.org/movement/relational-aesthetics/history-and-concepts/

 

III. Nineteen-Ninety-Eight and Nicolas Bourriaud‘s book

The French curator Nicolas Bourriaud published a book called Relational Aesthetics in 1998 in which he defined the term as:

A set of artistic practices which take as their theoretical and practical point of departure the whole of human relations and their social context, rather than an independent and private space

He saw artists as facilitators rather than makers and regarded art as information exchanged between the artist and the viewers. The artist, in this sense, gives audiences access to power and the means to change the world.

Source: https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/r/relational-aesthetics

A Philosophy of the Moment · Ideas of Curiosity · Miscellany · Relational Aesthetics

Of angular velocity [ω]

I.

A high rate of proper motion can indicate that a star is located nearby, as more distant stars must move at higher velocities in order to achieve the same rate of angular travel across the celestial sphere.

Tốc độ chuyển động thích hợp cao có thể chỉ ra rằng một ngôi sao nằm gần đó, vì các ngôi sao xa hơn phải di chuyển với vận tốc cao hơn để đạt được cùng tốc độ di chuyển góc trên thiên cầu.

Source: https://glosbe.com/en/vi/angular%20velocity

 

II.

Particle in three dimensions

The orbital angular velocity vector encodes the time rate of change of angular position, as well as the instantaneous plane of angular displacement. In this case (counter-clockwise circular motion) the vector points up.

In three-dimensional space, we again have the position vector r of a moving particle. Here, orbital angular velocity is a pseudovector whose magnitude is the rate at which r sweeps out angle, and whose direction is perpendicular to the instantaneous plane in which r sweeps out angle (i.e. the plane spanned by r and v). However, as there are two directions perpendicular to any plane, an additional condition is necessary to uniquely specify the direction of the angular velocity; conventionally, the right-hand rule is used.

Let the pseudovector be the unit vector perpendicular to the plane spanned by r and v, so that the right-hand rule is satisfied (i.e. the instantaneous direction of angular displacement is counter-clockwise looking from the top of ). Taking polar coordinates in this plane, as in the two-dimensional case above, one may define the orbital angular velocity vector as:

where θ is the angle between r and v. In terms of the cross product, this is:

From the above equation, one can recover the tangential velocity as:

Note that the above expression for is only valid if is in the same plane as the motion

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angular_velocity